In vertebrate anatomy, the thyroid gland or merely, the thyroid, is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body, and is not to be confused with the parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland is discovered in the neck, inferior to (under) the thyroid cartilage (also recognized as the Adam’s Apple) and at around the exact same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how rapidly the physique employs power, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body need to be to other hormones.
The thyroid gland participates in these procedures by creating thyroid hormones, the principal types becoming triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and impact the development and fee of perform of several other programs in the entire body. T3 and T4 are synthesized employing both iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid gland also creates calcitonin, which performs a role in calcium homeostasis.
The thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary (to be certain, the anterior pituitary). The thyroid gland gets its title from the Greek word for “protect”, right after the shape of the relevant thyroid cartilage. The most frequent issues of the thyroid gland consist of an more than-lively thyroid gland, referred to as ‘hyperthyroidism’, and an below-energetic thyroid gland, referred to as ‘hypothyroidism’.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-form organ and is composed of two cone-like lobes or wings, lobus dexter (appropriate lobe) and lobus sinister (left lobe), linked via the isthmus. The organ is positioned on the anterior facet of the neck, lying in opposition to and about the larynx and trachea, achieving posteriorly the oesophagus and carotid sheath. It begins cranially at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage (just under the laryngeal prominence, or ‘Adam’s Apple’), and extends inferiorly to around the fifth or sixth tracheal ring
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